There are 17 species of penguin, each slightly different. Some of the species have nicknames which can cause people to think there are more than 17 species (for example the Little penguin is also known as the Blue penguin).
All of the species live in the Southern hemisphere. Many live at the South Pole on Antarctica. But some don't live in such cold places. They are found on the coasts of South America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Galapagos Islands.
The Emperor penguin is the only species that breeds and nests in Antarctica through the frigid winter.